What is UDL and Does it Apply to Primary Education?

UDL and Primary Education

I’ve heard UDL mentioned a number of times in recent weeks in education circles and it piqued my interest as it was a term that is new to me. I have been doing a bit of reading into it and whether it is relevant in primary education as most of the examples I have seen online refer to third level institutions adopting the approach. This post summaries what I have learned.

What is UDL?

UDL stands for Universal Design for Learning. It is educational framework designed to make learning accessible to all students, regardless of their diverse needs and learning styles. It involves proactively creating instructional materials, methods, and assessments that cater to a broad range of learners from the outset.

The Universal Design for Learning (UDL) framework was initially developed in the 1980s by researchers at the Centre for Applied Special Technology (CAST), a non-profit organisation in the United States. The concept was introduced by David H. Rose, Ed.D., and Anne Meyer, Ed.D., who co-founded CAST. They aimed to create a framework that would address the diverse needs of learners and promote inclusive education.

The UDL framework has since evolved and gained recognition as a powerful approach to designing and delivering instruction that is accessible to all students, regardless of their individual differences. It continues to be a guiding principle in education, influencing curriculum development, teaching practices, and the creation of inclusive learning environments.

The interactive UDL guidelines are available on CAST’s website and look like this:

How is UDL different to differentiation?

While both differentiation and UDL aim to support diverse learners, they differ in approach. Differentiation involves adapting instruction reactively, often after identifying individual student needs. In contrast, UDL is proactive, focusing on creating inclusive learning environments from the start, minimising the need for subsequent adjustments.

Is UDL applicable to primary schools?

From my reading, UDL appears to be relevant in all educational settings and levels, although at present, it is most often spoken about in the context of third level education. Primary education lays the foundation for future learning and UDL is especially relevant here because it ensures that each child has an equitable chance to succeed by accommodating different learning preferences, abilities, and interests. This view is supported by CAST who state the following on their website:

The UDL Guidelines can be used by educators, curriculum developers, researchers, parents, and anyone else who wants to implement the UDL framework in a learning environment. These guidelines offer a set of concrete suggestions that can be applied to any discipline or domain to ensure that all learners can access and participate in meaningful, challenging learning opportunities.

Examples of how UDL can be used in Primary Schools:

Multiple Means of Representation:

  • Present information through stories, visuals, and hands-on activities.

Multiple Means of Engagement:

  • Allow students to choose from various activities to foster engagement, such as group projects, individual tasks, or interactive games.

Multiple Means of Expression:

  • Provide options for students to demonstrate understanding through drawing, writing, speaking, or using digital tools.

(These are just a few examples, there are lots more in the UDL Guidelines themselves!)

Challenges/ Drawbacks of UDL:

While Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is widely recognized for its potential to create inclusive learning environments, there are some criticisms and concerns raised by educators and researchers. It’s important to note that opinions on UDL can vary, and criticisms should be considered within the context of individual experiences and perspectives. Some common criticisms include:

Implementation Challenges:

Critics argue that implementing UDL can be challenging, especially in resource-constrained environments. Teachers may face difficulties in creating multiple means of representation, engagement, and expression due to time constraints, lack of training, or insufficient access to diverse materials.

Assessment Issues:

Some critics express concerns about the compatibility of UDL with standardised testing and traditional assessment methods. UDL promotes varied ways of demonstrating understanding, which may not align seamlessly with standardised testing formats.

Lack of Clarity:

Critics suggest that there can be a lack of clarity in understanding and implementing UDL, leading to variability in how teachers interpret and apply its principles. This can result in inconsistent practices across classrooms.

Overemphasis on Technology:

Some argue that UDL is at times associated too heavily with the use of technology in the learning process. While technology can provide valuable tools for implementing UDL, there’s a concern that an overemphasis on it may neglect other important aspects of inclusive teaching.

Potential for Superficial Implementation:

Critics caution against the risk of superficial implementation, where educators may adopt UDL principles in a checklist-like manner without deeply understanding the philosophy behind it. This could limit the effectiveness of UDL in creating truly inclusive learning experiences.

It’s worth noting that proponents of UDL often address these concerns by emphasising the importance of ongoing professional development, collaboration among educators, and a thoughtful, context-specific approach to implementation. Despite criticisms, many educators find value in the UDL framework and its potential to enhance the educational experience for all students.


Universal Design for Learning is increasingly been seen as a way to ensure that every child is provided with an equal opportunity to thrive in the education system. For this reason, I think it is very likely that Irish primary schools will be hearing a lot more about it in the future!


AHEAD. (2023). Universal Design for Learning (UDL). AHEAD – Association for Higher Education Access and Disability. Available at: https://www.ahead.ie/udl

CAST. (2023). Universal Design for Learning (UDL). CAST – Center for Applied Special Technology. Available at: https://www.cast.org/impact/universal-design-for-learning-udl

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT [23rd November 2023]. https://www.openai.com/

A note on this blog post:

I have been exploring how ChatGPT and other AI can be used to assist teachers with their work over the past few weeks. I have used ChatGPT to assist with the writing of this blog post. This is the first post that I have created in this way, and I would love to hear what you think on this, or any other aspect of the post in the comments!

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